The purpose of this website is to be a place for learning and discussion. The website and each tutorial topics do not encourage anyone to participate in trading or investment of any kind.
Any information shown in any part of this website do not promise any movement, gains, or profit for any trader or non-trader.


Recent Posts

Ông Putin ca ngợi binh sĩ nhân Ngày Bảo vệ Tổ quốc

Tổng thống Vladimir Putin ca ngợi binh sĩ v?  vạch ra phương hướng phát triển tiếp theo của ng? nh công nghiệp quốc phòng Nga.
Source: Ông Putin ca ngợi binh sĩ nhân Ngày Bảo vệ Tổ quốc
General Discussion / Re: Daily Market Analysis By FXOpen
« Last post by FXOpen Trader on Today at 08:58:04 AM »
Market Analysis: AUD/USD and NZD/USD Grind Higher Steadily

AUD/USD is moving higher and might rally if it clears 0.6600. NZD/USD is also rising and could extend its increase above the 0.6220 resistance zone.

Important Takeaways for AUD/USD and NZD/USD Analysis Today

  • The Aussie Dollar is moving higher from the 0.6540 zone against the US Dollar.
  • There is a key bullish trend line forming with support at 0.6555 on the hourly chart of AUD/USD at FXOpen.
  • NZD/USD is showing positive signs above the 0.6180 support.
  • There is a major bullish trend line forming with support at 0.6190 on the hourly chart of NZD/USD at FXOpen.

AUD/USD Technical Analysis

On the hourly chart of AUD/USD at FXOpen, the pair remained stable near the 0.6500 zone, as discussed in the previous analysis. The Aussie Dollar formed a base and started a decent increase above the 0.6540 resistance against the US Dollar

The bulls pushed the pair above the 0.6550 resistance zone. There was a close above the 0.6565 resistance and the 50-hour simple moving average.

The pair is now consolidating near the 50% Fib retracement level of the downward move from the 0.6595 swing high to the 0.6542 low. On the upside, the AUD/USD chart indicates that the pair is now facing resistance near 0.6575.

The 61.8% Fib retracement level of the downward move from the 0.6595 swing high to the 0.6542 low is also near 0.6575. The first major resistance might be 0.6600. An upside break above the 0.6600 resistance might send the pair further higher.

The next major resistance is near the 0.6650 level. Any more gains could clear the path for a move toward the 0.6720 resistance zone.

If not, the pair might correct lower below the 50-hour simple moving average at 0.6555. There is also a key bullish trend line forming with support at 0.6555. The next support could be 0.6540. If there is a downside break below the 0.6540 support, the pair could extend its decline toward the 0.6510 zone. Any more losses might signal a move toward 0.6450.


Disclaimer: This article represents the opinion of the Companies operating under the FXOpen brand only (excluding FXOpen EU). It is not to be construed as an offer, solicitation, or recommendation with respect to products and services provided by the Companies operating under the FXOpen brand, nor is it to be considered financial advice.
غياب رونالدو ومشاركة ميسي - النصر يكتسح انتر ميامي بسداسية

فاز رونالدو وميسي، إجمالا، بـ13 جائزة من آخر 15 جائزة للكرة الذهبية. وكانت الجماهير السعودية تتمني رؤية النجمين في مواجهة جديدة لكن رونالدو غاب تماما بينما شارك ميسي لبضع دقائق في خسارة فريقه بسداسية أمام النصر.

Source: غياب رونالدو ومشاركة ميسي - النصر يكتسح انتر ميامي بسداسية

ELIAN PELTIER, JOAO SILVA2024年2月21日位于科特迪瓦阿比让郊区的阿拉萨内·瓦塔拉体育场由中国建造,这里的的六万个座位一直难以坐满。 Joao Silva/The New York TimesThe Alassane Ouattara stadium rises like a piece of sculpture from the dusty brown earth north of Ivory Coast’s largest city, its undulating roof and white columns towering over the empty landscape like a spaceship that has dropped onto a uninhabited planet.在科特迪瓦共和国最大城市的北部,阿拉萨内·瓦塔拉体育场就像一座雕塑,从尘土飞扬的棕色土地上拔地而起,起伏的屋顶和白色圆柱耸立在空旷的大地之上,如同一艘掉落在无人星球上的宇宙飞船。On Sunday, the three-and-a-half-year-old stadium will host its signature moment, when the national soccer teams of Ivory Coast and Nigeria compete in the final of Africa’s biggest sporting event, in front of tens of thousands of fans chanting and cheering in a stadium financed and built by China.本周日,这座建于三年半以前的体育场将迎来它的标志性时刻,科特迪瓦国家足球队和尼日利亚国家足球队将在这座由中国出资并建造的体育场内,在数万名球迷的呐喊和欢呼声中,角逐非洲最大体育赛事的决赛奖杯。While that is nothing new for the tournament, the Africa Cup of Nations, the arena is just the latest example of the contradictions that emerge from Chinese projects built on Chinese terms, and on African soil.虽然这对非洲国家杯这项赛事来说并不是什么新鲜事,但这个场馆却是按照中国的条件在非洲土地上建设中国项目导致矛盾的最新例证。Stadiums have been a cornerstone of China’s diplomatic reach into Africa since the 1970s, but their number has increased since the early 2000s, part of a larger Chinese strategy to build infrastructure — from highways to railroads, ports to presidential palaces and even the headquarters of the African Union — in exchange for diplomatic clout or access to natural resources.自20世纪70年代以来,体育场馆一直是中国在非洲开展外交活动的基石,但从21世纪初开始,体育场馆的数量不断增加,成为中国建设基础设施——从高速公路到铁路、港口到总统府,甚至非洲联盟会议中心——以换取外交影响力或自然资源的更大战略的一部分。Through that trillion-dollar program, known as the Belt and Road Initiative, China has become a central partner to the developing countries that benefit from expensive projects they might not otherwise be able to afford. But Chinese construction has sometimes been accompanied by charges of local corruption, and critics have questioned the value of the big-budget projects, noting they deliver dubious long-term economic benefits but very real debts that governments can struggle to repay.通过这项被称为“一带一路”倡议的万亿美元计划,中国已成为发展中国家的核心合作伙伴,这些国家可以受益于它们本来可能无力承担的昂贵项目。但是,中国的建设有时也伴随着地方的腐败指控,批评者质疑这些大预算项目的价值,指出它们带来的长期经济效益存疑,但却带来了让政府苦于无法偿还的真实债务。“China doesn’t ask why you need a stadium,” said Itamar Dubinsky, a researcher at the African Studies Program at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel. “It just finances and builds it.”“中国不会问你为什么需要一个体育场,”以色列内盖夫本·古里安大学非洲研究项目的研究员伊塔马尔·杜宾斯基说。“中国只会出资然后建造它。”由于通往瓦塔拉体育场的道路尚未开通,步行前往体育场可能需要一个小时。批评人士说,中国建造的体育场馆很少有配套的基础设施。南非队球员在与摩洛哥队的比赛中。阿比让的几内亚球迷。国家杯是非洲最大的体育赛事。Over the past two decades, Chinese companies have built or renovated dozens of stadiums across Africa, including, in the past 15 years, nearly half of those that have hosted matches in the Africa Cup of Nations. That total includes three of the six used for this year’s tournament, whose showpiece is the 60,000-seat Ouattara stadium, designed and built by two Chinese state-owned companies.在过去二十年里,中国公司在非洲各地建造或翻新了数十座体育场馆,其中近一半在过去15年里举办过非洲国家杯比赛,今年比赛使用的六座体育场中有三座,其代表作是由两家中国国有企业设计和建造的可容纳60000人的瓦塔拉体育场。Its exterior of white columns and curving arches — inset with panels tinted green and orange, the national colors of Ivory Coast — is a stylistic improvement from earlier projects on the continent, which critics have derided as drab concrete monoliths.它的外观由白色圆柱和弧形拱门构成,镶嵌着科特迪瓦的国家色——绿色和橙色——的面板,与非洲大陆早期的项目相比,在风格造型上有所改进,那些早期场馆被评论家讥讽为单调乏味的混凝土巨石。But three years after the stadium hosted its first game, the new road leading to it still hasn’t opened, forcing fans to walk for up to an hour to reach or leave the arena, and the sports city around it has yet to materialize. That, critics say, is another regular feature of the projects. Chinese-built stadiums are rarely delivered with the infrastructure to support them, or the know-how to maintain them.但在体育场举办了其首场比赛三年后,通往体育场的新路仍未开通,球迷们不得不步行长达一小时才能到达或离开体育场,而体育场周围的体育城也尚未建成。批评人士说,这也是这些项目的另一个常见特点。中国建造的体育场馆很少有配套的基础设施和维护相关的技术。Yet for countless fans who watched games over the past month, what mattered lay elsewhere. Ivory Coast, bouncing back from civil war and boasting one of West Africa’s largest economies and a dynamic middle class, has showcased its ability to host a major tournament in state-of-the-art facilities.然而,对于过去一个月观看比赛的无数球迷来说,重点在其他方面。从内战中恢复过来的科特迪瓦拥有西非最大的经济体之一,以及充满活力的中产阶级,该国展示了其在先进设施内举办大型赛事的能力。“One can only be impressed,” one fan, Halima Duret, said as she scanned the stands on a recent evening. An interior designer living in Abidjan, Ms. Duret was attending a soccer game for the first time, and it was a special one. Her home country’s team, Guinea, had reached the quarterfinals. “What a beauty,” she added.“一定会给人留下深刻印象,”最近一个晚上,一位名叫哈利玛·杜雷特的球迷看着场馆的看台时说。杜雷特是住在阿比让的一名室内设计师,这是她第一次观看足球比赛,而且是一场特殊的比赛。她的祖国几内亚队进入了四分之一决赛。她还说:“太美了。”The partnership between China and Ivory Coast, a major producer of rubber and cocoa, is emblematic of the way China has eagerly pursued ties with resource-rich African countries.科特迪瓦是橡胶和可可的主要生产国,它与中国的合作关系,是后者热切寻求与资源丰富的非洲国家建立联系的体现。As Chinese and Ivorian workers were building the stadium in Ebimpé, on the outskirts of Abidjan, President Alassane Ouattara visited his Chinese counterpart, Xi Jinping, in Beijing in 2018 to strengthen the countries’ relations. Since then, Ivory Coast has increased its exports of rubber and crude oil to China, which has become Ivory Coast’s largest trading partner. China is also financing the expansion of Abidjan’s port, one of its largest Belt and Road Initiative projects in West Africa.就在中国和科特迪瓦工人在阿比让郊区的埃宾佩修建体育场时,阿拉萨内·瓦塔拉总统于2018年前往北京访问国家主席习近平,以加强两国关系。此后,科特迪瓦增加了对中国的橡胶和原油出口,中国已成为该国最大的贸易伙伴。中国还在资助阿比让港口的扩建,这是其在西非最大的“一带一路”倡议项目之一。一名小贩在阿比让的一个市场上出售科特迪瓦的小商品。东道主科特迪瓦将在周日的决赛中对阵尼日利亚。中国的“一带一路”倡议在非洲修建了桥梁、铁路和港口。科特迪瓦人庆祝国家队在非洲杯四分之一决赛中战胜马里。When China’s foreign minister, Wang Yi, visited Ivory Coast during the Africa Cup of Nations last month, he thanked Mr. Ouattara for his country’s support to China’s “vital interests,” including on Taiwan. Mr. Ouattara vowed to deepen the bilateral relationship and said the countries shared a similar vision of the world order.在上个月非洲国家杯期间访问科特迪瓦时,中国外交部长王毅感谢瓦塔拉总统的国家支持中国的“重大利益”,包括在台湾问题上的利益。瓦塔拉总统誓言要深化双边关系,并表示两国对世界秩序有着相似的愿景。While stadiums might not be the biggest infrastructure projects, or the most worthwhile, they are popular, at least at first, experts on China-Africa relations said.研究中非关系的专家认为,虽然体育场馆可能不是最大的基础设施项目,也不是最有价值的项目,但至少在一开始,它们很受欢迎。“A stadium is one of the most eye-catching signs of China’s ability to contribute to the development of African countries,” said Filomène Ebi, an Ivorian Sinologist and associate researcher at the National Taiwan University. “Most people in Ivory Coast know that China built the Ouattara stadium,” she said.科特迪瓦汉学家、国立台湾大学副研究员菲洛梅娜·埃比说:“体育场是中国有能力为非洲国家发展做出贡献的最醒目标志之一。”她说:“大多数科特迪瓦人都知道中国建造了瓦塔拉体育场。”As mass consumption of sports booms in Africa, other countries have joined the game. A Turkish construction company built Senegal’s new national soccer stadium, which will host the Youth Olympic Games in 2026. And “Visit Saudi Arabia” is the main sponsor of a new pan-African soccer league.随着大众体育消费在非洲蓬勃发展,其他国家也加入了这一行列。一家土耳其建筑公司建造了塞内加尔的国家足球场,该体育场将于2026年举办青年奥运会。“来沙特旅游”(Visit Saudi Arabia)是一个新的泛非足球联赛的主要赞助商。Western companies and governments are also playing: The French oil company Total Energies is the Africa Cup of Nations’ main sponsor, and the N.B.A. is a main backer of the Basketball Africa League.西方公司和政府也参与其中:法国道达尔能源公司是非洲国家杯的主要赞助商,美国国家篮球协会是非洲篮球联赛的主要支持者。But no country has poured more effort into embedding itself into Africa’s sports scene than China, and countries hosting the Cup of Nations have been favored recipients. All of the stadiums built for recent editions of the tournament in Angola and Gabon were built by Chinese companies. And in Kenya’s capital, Nairobi, a Chinese company is renovating the stadium where President William Ruto was inaugurated, and which will host soccer games for the 2027 edition of the cup.但是在融入非洲体育界方面,没有哪个国家比中国投入了更多努力,而非洲杯的主办国一直是最受青睐的受资助者。在安哥拉和加蓬主办的最近几届非洲杯赛事的所有体育场都是由中国公司建造的。在肯尼亚首都内罗毕,一家中国公司正在翻修总统威廉·鲁托就职的体育场,该体育场将作为2027年非洲杯的举办地。Most stadiums are donations from China, or financed through soft loans from Chinese banks. “A soccer stadium is a small price to pay for potentially much larger benefits,” said Simon Chadwick, a professor of sport and geopolitical economy at the Skema Business School in Paris.大多数体育场都是中国捐赠的,或者通过中国一些银行的优惠贷款提供资金。巴黎斯科玛商学院体育和地缘政治经济学教授西蒙·查德威克表示:“对于可能获得的更大利益来说,一座足球场只是很小的代价。”But many African governments have let stadiums that were initially a point of pride fall into disrepair. A Chinese-built stadium in the capital of Gabon, Libreville, has been mostly abandoned since it hosted the final of the Cup of Nations in 2017. The Chinese-built national stadium of the Central African Republic, one of the world’s poorest countries, cannot even host the games of its own national team.但很多非洲政府对这些最初引以为傲的体育场疏于维护。加蓬首都利伯维尔的一座中国建造的体育场自2017年举办非洲杯决赛以来已基本废弃。在世界上最贫穷的国家之一中非共和国,中国建造的国家体育场甚至无法用来举办该国国家队的比赛。科特迪瓦圣佩德罗郊区一片尘土飞扬的田野。大型体育场很受欢迎,但批评者表示,它们并不是这个国家最需要的。科特迪瓦圣佩德罗,地方政府官员发放免费球票,以试图填满中国建造的劳伦·波库体育场内的座位。计划在非洲杯后接手波库体育场的当地俱乐部表示,他们很难将座位填满。Even Ivory Coast’s shiny stadium has imperfections: Its grass field doesn’t extend far enough beyond the playing surface, so organizers have had to patch its perimeter with artificial turf to keep players in cleats from slipping on the adjacent running track.即使是科特迪瓦那座光鲜的体育场也有缺陷:其草地在比赛场地之外延伸过窄,组织者不得不用人造草坪修补外缘,以防止穿着钉鞋的球员在场边的跑道上滑倒。The future of the smaller stadiums built across Ivory Coast also appears uncertain.科特迪瓦各地修建的小型体育场的未来似乎也充满了不确定性。Government officials said local teams would use the infrastructure once the tournament was over, but in the resort town of San Pedro, home to a new 20,000-seat stadium built by a Chinese company, the city’s main soccer club said the facility was too big for its needs.政府官员表示,非洲杯结束后,地方球队将继续使用这些基础设施。但在度假小镇圣佩德罗,当地的主要足球俱乐部表示,中国公司修建的那座可以容纳2万观众的体育场对他们来说太大了。“At best we might manage to fill it at 30 percent,” said Abdelkarim Bouaziz, an executive at F.C. San Pedro, which plays in Ivory Coast’s top league. “But we won’t be able to pay for its maintenance.”圣佩德罗足球俱乐部是科特迪瓦顶级联赛中的一只球队。“最好的情况下我们能填满30%的座位。”该俱乐部官员阿卜杜勒卡里姆·布阿齐兹说。“但我们无法支付其维护费用。”Ivory Coast invested more than $1 billion in the organization of the tournament, but it has also struggled to fill its stadiums’ shiny seats, raising questions about whether it made sense to construct such large venues for a monthlong event.科特迪瓦在非洲杯赛事组织上投入了超过10亿美元,但仍然难以填满体育场内闪亮的座位,这引发了人们对为了为期一个月的赛事建造如此大型的场馆是否合理的疑问。During the opening game, which featured the host nation, the Ouattara stadium was about two-thirds full. In San Pedro, the town hall was recently awash with unsold tickets, which the mayor, Nakaridja Cissé, said she was distributing free in an effort to invite residents into the new arena.在东道主队的揭幕战中,瓦塔拉体育场内大约坐了三分之二的观众。在圣佩德罗,市政厅内最近堆满了未售出的门票,市长纳卡里贾·西塞表示,她正在免费分发这些门票,以邀请居民们踏入这座新的体育场。Ivorian officials say they have a post-tournament strategy for the new or renovated infrastructure. Ousmane Gbané, the head of the National Office for Sports, said local clubs like F.C. San Pedro would finally leave Abidjan, where they have trained and played for years, and use the new facilities. International hotel chains, Mr. Gbané said, had expressed interest in managing the residences built for the tournament’s teams.科特迪瓦官员表示,他们对新建成和那些翻新的基础设施制定了非洲杯后的战略。国家体育办公室主任奥斯曼·巴内表示,像圣佩德罗队这样的当地俱乐部最终会离开他们训练和比赛了多年的阿比让,转而使用新的设施。巴内表示,已有国际连锁酒店对管理为非洲杯球队建造的住所表达了兴趣。“We’ve learned from the mistakes of others,” Mr. Gbané said. In only a few weeks, he said confidently, “the infrastructure we built for Afcon will have a new life.”“我们从其他人的错误中吸取了教训,”巴内说。他自信地表示,几周后,“那些为非洲杯建设的基础设施会获得新的生命”。圣佩德罗,中国建造的劳伦·波库体育场。本文最初发表于2024年2月10日。Abdi Latif Dahir、Tariq Panja和Loucoumane Coulibaly对本文有报道贡献。Elian Peltier是时报驻西非记者,常驻塞内加尔达喀尔。点击查看更多关于她的信息。Joao Silva是时报驻南非摄影记者。点击查看更多关于他的信息。翻译:纽约时报中文网点击查看本文英文版。

Source: 中国的“体育场外交”给非洲国家带来了什么


新周刊 (ID:new-weekly)


Source: 高考考得最好的一群人,十年后才刷屏

由 15 名成员组成的理事会的投票结果为 13 比 1,英国投了弃权票,反映出全球各国对结束这场造成 29000 多名巴勒斯坦人死亡的毁灭性冲突的大力支持。
“所以,问问你们自己,扪心自问。你们今天的决定会造成什么后果? 历史将如何评价你们?
卡拉马德表示,“再一次……当美国能够做正确的事情时:保护巴勒斯坦人免受种族灭绝的严重风险; 尊重国际法和普遍性; 防止大规模杀戮和苦难——它选择了相反的道路。”
来源 : 半岛电视台+通讯社

Source: 世界谴责美国最近对联合国安理会加沙停火决议的否决
General Discussion / Re: Daily Market Analytics - Forex
« Last post by FXOpen Trader on February 22, 2024, 10:21:27 PM »
GBPUSD Technical Analysis – 22nd FEB, 2024

GBPUSD – Bullish Trend Reversal

GBPUSD had a strong bullish momentum today when the prices touched a high of 1.2708 after which we saw a downwards retracement in its levels touching a low of 1.2611.
We can see that the prices remained in a consolidation channel after which we can see the resumption of the bullish trend.

We can see the formation of Bullish Trend Reversal pattern with the Adaptive Moving Average AMA20 and AMA50 in the daily timeframe.
The prices of GBPUSD are ranging near the support of triangle in the weekly timeframe.

The price is back over the Pivot point in the weekly timeframe indicating the bullish tone present in the markets with immediate targets of 1.2696.
GBPUSD is now trading above its 100-hour SMA and below its 200-hour SMA simple moving average.
  • Pound bullish reversal seen above the 1.2611 mark.
  • Short-term range appears to be Mild Bullish.
  • GBPUSD continues to remain above the 1.2600 levels.
  • Average true range ATR is indicating high market volatility.

GBPUSD is now trading below its Pivot levels of 1.2660 and is moving into a Bullish channel.
The price of GBPUSD is aiming to cross its Classic resistance levels of 1.2664 and the next target is located at 1.2696 which is a 14-3 Day Raw Stochastic at 70%.

Note: This Analytics is created by me and is based on my own personal Forex trading experience of 10 years. I am using my trading experience to help Experienced and Newbie traders and they should know about the risks of Forex trading.

For in-depth analysis, please check FXOpen Blog
General Discussion / Re: Daily Market Analytics - Forex
« Last post by FXOpen Trader on February 22, 2024, 10:04:18 PM »
EURUSD Technical Analysis – 22nd FEB, 2024

EURUSD – Resistance of Channel is Broken

EURUSD had strong bullish momentum today and managed to touch a high of 1.0885 after which we saw downwards retracement towards a low of 1.0802 levels.
We can see that the prices of Euro have now entered into a consolidation channel after which we will be able to see some fresh upside moves.

The resistance of the channel is broken in the daily timeframe.
The Momentum indicator is back over zero in the 4-hourly timeframe indicating the bullish tone present in the markets with immediate targets of 1.0857.

The prices of EURUSD are ranging near the support of the triangle and channel in the weekly timeframe.
In the short term we are now looking at some market consolidation after which the prices will start moving upwards with immediate targets of 1.0857 which is a 14-3 Day Raw Stochastic at 80%.

EURUSD is now trading above its 100-hour SMA and 200-hour SMA simple moving averages.
  • Euro bullish reversal seen above the 1.0802 mark.
  • Short-term range appears to be Mild Bullish.
  • EURUSD continues to remain above the 1.0800 levels.
  • Average true range ATR is indicating high market volatility.

The next resistance is located at 1.0841 which is a 38.2% Retracement From 4 Week High.
EURUSD is now trading below its Pivot levels of 1.0822 and is moving into a Mild Bullish Channel. The price of EURUSD remains above its Classic support levels of 1.0819 and is moving towards its next target of 1.0857.

Note: This Analytics is created by me and is based on my own personal Forex trading experience of 10 years. I am using my trading experience to help Experienced and Newbie traders and they should know about the risks of Forex trading.

For in-depth analysis, please check FXOpen Blog
General Discussion / Re: Daily Market Analysis By FXOpen
« Last post by FXOpen Trader on February 22, 2024, 06:06:05 PM »
Commodity Currencies Strengthen after the FOMC Minutes Publication

The fundamental data of recent trading sessions contributed to a slight strengthening of commodity and European currencies. Thus, the AUD/USD pair, after forming a bullish engulfing combination, managed to confidently gain a foothold above 0.6500. The pound/US dollar currency pair retested the support at 1.2540 and went above 1.2600, and greenback sellers in the US dollar/loonie pair are trying to break the support at 1.3500.


The price of the pound on the GBP/USD chart has been trading for the third week in a rather narrow range of 1.2680-1.2540. Apparently, to enter new positions, investors need a more important foundation than the publication of the FOMC protocols. The head of the Bank of England, Andrew Bailey, whose speech took place on Tuesday at 13:15 GMT+3, also failed to inspire market participants to make new entries.

Today at 12:30 GMT+3, we are waiting for the publication of data on the business activity index in the UK services sector for February. At 17:45 GMT+3, the business activity index (PMI) in the US services sector for the same period will be released. Also at 18:00 GMT+3, data on sales on the secondary housing market for January will be published, and at the very beginning of the American session, weekly figures on the number of applications for unemployment benefits will be released.


Disclaimer: This article represents the opinion of the Companies operating under the FXOpen brand only (excluding FXOpen EU). It is not to be construed as an offer, solicitation, or recommendation with respect to products and services provided by the Companies operating under the FXOpen brand, nor is it to be considered financial advice.
‘40년간 발굴’ 집념… 운봉고원서 잠든 가야 문명 깨우다

월산리고분서 가야 흔적 첫 발견
유곡리·두락리 32호분 추가 발굴
청동거울·철기 등 140여점 출토
학술가치 인정받아 세계유산 등재

남원, 체계적 유산 보존관리 마련
인근 토지 매입·농경시설물 철거
훼손된 고분 원형복원 사업 추진
주민·미래세대에 가치 전승 앞장

‘신선의 땅’이라 불리는 전북 남원 운봉고원. 이곳은 조선 중기의 예언서인 ‘정감록’에 사람들이 난리를 피해 살기 좋은 열 곳을 일컫는 십승지지(十勝之地) 중 하나로 꼽혔으며, 조선 개국공신 정도전이 “운봉이 없으면 호남도 없다”고 했을 정도로 예로부터 정치·국방의 요충지였다. 한반도의 물줄기를 동서로 가르는 백두대간 동쪽의 고원지대로 남강과 섬진강이 시작되는 곳이다. 동시에 동쪽으로는 팔량치를 넘어 경남 함양으로 이어지고, 서쪽으로는 여원치로 내려오면 남원, 치재를 지나 임실과 장수로 갈 수 있는 교통의 요충지이자 동서 문화교류의 관문이었다. 운봉고원의 가야 세력은 이러한 지리적 특징 때문에 백제와 신라를 이어 주는 큰 대문 역할을 했다. 그러나 경북과 경남에 밀려 전북 동부지역의 문화유산은 가야사의 불모지나 다름없었다. 하지만 유네스코 세계유산 등재를 계기로 가치가 재조명되고 있다.●운봉고원에서 꽃피운 남원가야문화
대한민국의 티베트고원으로 불리는 운봉고원에는 고분군, 제철유적, 산성, 봉수 등 200곳이 넘는 남원 가야의 유적이 있다. 특히 남원 유곡리와 두락리고분군은 2018년 호남지역에서 최초로 국가지정문화재 사적 제542호로 지정됐고, 지난해 한국의 16번째 유네스코 세계유산으로 등재되는 쾌거를 거뒀다.
가야고분군은 1~6세기 중엽에 걸쳐 한반도 남부에 존재했던 ‘가야’의 7개 고분군으로 이뤄진 연속유산이다. 7개 고분군은 지산동고분군(경북 고령), 대성동고분군(경남 김해), 말이산고분군(경남 함안), 교동과 송현동고분군(경남 창녕), 송학동고분군(경남 고성), 옥전고분군(경남 합천), 유곡리·두락리고분군이다.
이 중 유곡리·두락리고분군은 5~6세기 가야연맹에서 가장 서북부 내륙에 있는 운봉고원의 가야 정치체를 대표하는 고분군이다. 가야연맹의 최대 범위를 드러내면서 백제와 자율적으로 교섭했던 가야 정치체의 모습을 잘 보여 줘 높은 평가를 받았다.●가야사 불모지의 화려한 비상
전북 동부지역의 가야 문화유산의 실체 파악은 1960년대 고 전영래 교수의 지표조사로 시작됐다. 전 교수는 지표조사를 통해 월산리고분군, 유곡리와 두락리고분군 등 운봉고원 내 흩어진 다수의 고분을 확인했고, 역사적·학술적 가치를 학계에 보고했다. 하지만 당시 연구자들은 운봉고원의 행정구역 위치로 인해 백제시대 고분군으로 인지했다.
이후 1982년 남원 아영면 월산리고분군이 88고속도로 개설 공사 구간에 포함되면서 발굴돼 수혈식 석곽묘로 대표되는 가야묘제가 확인됐고 유개장경호, 발형기대 등 다양한 가야토기가 출토됐다. 고분군을 만든 주체가 가야로 밝혀지는 역사적 순간이었다.
2010년 월산리고분군 추가 발굴조사를 기점으로 운봉고원 가야문화에 대한 조사·연구는 정부와 학계의 재조명을 받았다. 그중 하나가 유곡리와 두락리고분군의 국가 유산 사적 지정이었다. 2013년 고분군 사적 지정의 당위성 확립 등을 위해 32호분을 발굴했다. 고분군은 일제강점기 때 일본인들에게 무참히 도굴됐음에도 금동신발, 청동거울, 토기, 철기 등 140여점의 유물이 나왔다.
무령왕릉 출토품과 흡사한 수대경(청동거울)과 금동신발은 가야 영역에서 한 점씩만 출토되는 최고의 위세품(威勢品)이었다. 유곡리와 두락리고분군은 이러한 탁월한 학술 가치를 인정받아 2018년 3월 국가 유산 사적으로 지정됐다. 같은 해 5월에는 호남지역에서 유일하게 가야고분군 세계유산 등재 대상으로도 선정됐다.●“고대 문명의 다양성 보여 주는 유적”
가야고분군 세계유산 등재 추진은 2013년 대성동·말이산·지산동고분군을 중심으로 시작됐다. 그러나 탁월한 보편적 가치 확립과 연속유산으로서의 완전성을 보완하기 위해 2018년 5월 가야 고분군 유산 범위를 3곳에서 7곳으로 확대하면서 유곡리·두락리고분군의 세계유산 등재 추진에 불을 댕겼다.
가야고분군 세계유산 등재는 2013년 시작돼 10년 만인 지난해 세계인의 유산이 됐다. 사우디아라비아에서 개최된 제45차 세계유산위원회는 가야고분군에 대해 “주변국과 자율적이고 수평적인 독특한 체계를 유지하며 동아시아 고대 문명의 다양성을 보여 주는 중요한 증거가 된다는 점에서 ‘탁월한 보편적 가치’가 인정된다”고 평가했다.
유곡리와 두락리고분군은 운봉고원의 가야 정치체를 대표하는 유적이다. 특히 지리산 줄기인 연비산에서 내려오는 언덕 능선을 따라 조성된 40여기의 무덤은 전북지역에 있는 가야고분군 중에서 가장 규모가 크다. 유곡리와 두락리고분군에서 백제 왕릉급 무덤에서만 나오는 청동거울, 백제계 금동신발이 출토돼 백제와 자율적으로 교섭했던 운봉고원 가야 정치체의 위상을 보여 준다.
●남원의 체계적인 유적 보존 관리
유곡리와 두락리고분군이 세계유산으로 등재된 배경에는 남원시의 체계적인 보존관리가 큰 역할을 했다. 시는 세계유산 등재를 위해 유산 구역 내 토지 매입, 농경 시설물 철거 및 사적지 지목 변경 등 역사 인식 부족으로 잘못 정비된 것들을 재정비했다. 미래세대에 유산을 전승함과 더불어 세계유산의 가치를 지역민과 향유할 수 있는 계기를 마련했다.
시는 가야고분군 유네스코 세계유산 등재에 따라 다양한 활용방안을 마련하고자 유곡리와 두락리고분군 세계유산 활용 전략 수립 용역을 추진한다. 유산 관리와 관람객의 이해도·편의성 증진을 위해 가야고분군 홍보관 건립도 계획 중이다. 시는 유산의 학술 가치 확립을 위해 연차적으로 발굴조사하고, 도굴 및 경작지 조성으로 훼손된 고분 원형복원 사업을 추진해 1500년 전 찬란했던 운봉고원 가야문화 유산의 생활상을 복원할 계획이다.
Source: ‘40년간 발굴’ 집념… 운봉고원서 잠든 가야 문명 깨우다


Discussion Forum / 论坛 / منتدى للنقاش/ Diễn đàn thảo luận/

Disclaimer : The purpose of this website is to be a place for learning and discussion. The website and each tutorial topics do not encourage anyone to participate in trading or investment of any kind. Any information shown in any part of this website do not promise any movement, gains, or profit for any trader or non-trader.

By viewing any material or using the information within this site, you agree that it is general educational material whether it is about learning trading online or not and you will not hold anybody responsible for loss or damages resulting from the content provided here. It doesn't matter if this website contain a materials related to any trading. Investing in financial product is subject to market risk. Financial products, such as stock, forex, commodity, and cryptocurrency, are known to be very speculative and any investment or something related in them should done carefully, desirably with a good personal risk management.

Prices movement in the past and past performance of certain traders are by no means an assurance of future performance or any stock, forex, commodity, or cryptocurrency market movement. This website is for informative and discussion purpose in this website only. Whether newbie in trading, part-time traders, or full time traders. No one here can makes no warranties or guarantees in respect of the content, whether it is about the trading or not. Discussion content reflects the views of individual people only. The website bears no responsibility for the accuracy of forum member’s comments whether about learning forex online or not and will bear no responsibility or legal liability for discussion postings.

Any tutorial, opinions and comments presented on this website do not represent the opinions on who should buy, sell or hold particular investments, stock, forex currency pairs, commodity, or any products or courses. Everyone should conduct their own independent research before making any decision.

The publications herein do not take into account the investment objectives, financial situation or particular needs of any particular person. You should obtain individual trading advice based on your own particular circumstances before making an investment decision on the basis of information about trading and other matter on this website.

As a user, you should agree, through acceptance of these terms and conditions, that you should not use this forum to post any content which is abusive, vulgar, hateful, and harassing to any traders and non-traders.