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Author Topic: 习近平结束访欧:收获友情,但恐难彻底打消欧洲对华疑虑  (Read 24 times)


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ANDREW HIGGINS, 储百亮2024年5月13日中国国家主席习近平和匈牙利总理欧尔班上周四在布达佩斯。 Pool photo by Vivien Cher BenkoThe Chinese leader, Xi Jinping, received a gift of fine cognac at the Élysée Palace in Paris and was cheered in Belgrade by Serbians waving Chinese flags, albeit most of them were bused-in government workers.中国领导人习近平在巴黎爱丽舍宫收到的礼物是一瓶精美的干邑白兰地。他在贝尔格莱德受到挥舞着中国国旗的塞尔维亚人的欢迎,尽管他们中的大多数是用大巴运来的政府工作人员。And by the time he left Hungary on Friday at the end of a six-day European tour, the clouds over his country’s relations with the West looked much less dark, at least from China’s perspective.他上周五结束了为期六天的欧洲之行离开匈牙利时,笼罩在中国与西方关系上的乌云看起来不再那么阴暗,至少从中国的角度来看是这样。Mr. Xi told President Emmanuel Macron of France that relations would be “as vibrant and thriving as springtime.” At his next stop, he said the “tree of China-Serbia friendship will grow tall and sturdy.” In Hungary, Mr. Xi told Prime Minister Viktor Orban that their countries were poised to “embark on a golden voyage.”习近平对法国总统马克龙说,“中法关系必将如春天般充满生机、欣欣向荣。”在欧洲之行的第二站,他说,“让我们一起见证和期待中塞友谊之树茁壮成长。”在匈牙利,习近平对总理欧尔班说,两国关系已开始驶入“黄金航道”。The Chinese state-run news media, never less than glowing about Mr. Xi, went to strenuous lengths to present his European meetings as a triumph.从来都对习近平阿谀奉承的中国官媒不遗余力地将他的欧洲之行描述为胜利之旅。There were no breakthroughs on trade, the war in Ukraine or other issues that have soured ties — just a long list of new joint projects that China says it will help finance. Hungary got 18, Serbia dozens more. French companies inked deals on energy, finance and transport projects.习近平此行并没有在贸易、俄乌战争或其他导致中欧关系紧张的问题上取得进展,只宣布了一长串中国表示将帮助资助的新联合项目。匈牙利得到了18个项目,塞尔维亚得到了几十个。法国企业与中方签署了能源、金融和运输项目的协议。But the red carpet receptions Mr. Xi received in all three countries helped cast a rosier hue on ties between China and Europe, which have only worsened since he last visited five years ago.习近平在这三个国家受到的红毯欢迎为中欧关系带来了一层乐观的色彩。自他五年前上次来访以来,中欧关系一直在恶化。习近平与法国总统马克龙,摄于上周二。法国是习近平欧洲三国之行的第一站。China’s rigid restrictions on travel for much of the Covid-19 pandemic deterred high-level visits in either direction. And just as the Covid crisis began to fade, Europe’s estrangement from China deepened when President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia launched his full invasion of Ukraine in early 2022.中国在新冠病毒大流行期间曾严格限制旅行,阻碍了各方的高层访问。就在新冠危机开始消退之际,俄罗斯总统普京于2022年初发动了对乌克兰的全面入侵,导致欧洲与中国的疏远进一步加深。This week, after first stopping in Paris, Mr. Xi traveled to Serbia and Hungary, which have remained reliably pro-China on a continent where, according to opinion polls, China’s reputation has taken a nosedive.习近平上周首先抵达了巴黎,然后去了塞尔维亚和匈牙利,这两个欧洲国家一直坚定地支持中国,而据民意调查,中国在欧洲大陆的声誉已一落千丈。In Serbia, President Aleksandar Vucic declared that his country felt only “reverence and love” for the Chinese president, and the police detained followers of the banned Chinese spiritual movement Falun Gong to make sure they wouldn’t disrupt the government-orchestrated welcome for Mr. Xi.塞尔维亚总统武契奇宣称,塞尔维亚人民“对习近平主席充满感激和尊重”,当地警方拘留了在中国被禁的法轮功的学员,以确保他们不扰乱政府为习近平来访精心策划的欢迎活动。塞尔维亚贝尔格莱德欢迎习近平的人群,摄于上周三。In Hungary, Mr. Orban assured Mr. Xi, the leader of the world’s biggest communist country, that he would “feel at home” in Budapest, though the city is studded with monuments to the fight against communism. The police banned a protest planned for the center of Budapest and cleared a busy district of people so Mr. Xi could visit an office tower undisturbed on Friday.在匈牙利,欧尔班向世界上最大的共产主义国家领导人习近平保证,他在布达佩斯会有“来家里”的感觉,尽管这座城市里有很多与共产主义作斗争的纪念碑。警方禁止了计划于上周四在布达佩斯市中心举行的抗议活动,并清除了一个繁忙地区的人群,让习近平能在上周五不受干扰地参观一座办公楼。Mr. Xi’s goal on his European tour was to “demonstrate and strengthen China’s ability to retain friendly ties with Europe despite NATO and Ukraine,” said Yun Sun, the director of the China program at the Stimson Center in Washington. France, Serbia and Hungary, she added, are “about the most China-friendly countries” in Europe.华盛顿史汀生中心中国项目主任孙韵说,习近平此次欧洲之行的目的是“展示和加强中国有能力与欧洲保持友好关系,尽管受到北约和乌克兰的影响”。她补充说,法国、塞尔维亚、匈牙利是欧洲“对中国最友好的国家”。And though it is only about the size of Indiana and has fewer than 10 million people, Hungary will play an outsize role when it takes over the European Union’s rotating presidency this year. That role is mostly bureaucratic, but it will allow Hungary to try to set the agenda for meetings of the Council of the European Union, the bloc’s dominant power center.虽然匈牙利的面积只相当于美国的印第安纳州,人口不到1000万,但该国将在今年担任欧盟轮值主席国,那之后也许能发挥巨大作用。虽然主席国的作用主要是官僚性质的,但将让匈牙利能试图为欧盟的主要权力中心欧盟理事会制定会议议程。“Hungary is China’s Trojan horse in the European Union,” said Jean-Pierre Cabestan, a China expert at the Asia Center, a research group in Paris. Mr. Xi, he added, did not achieve much during his stop in France, but he “helped China’s position” by cementing his country’s ties to Serbia and Hungary.“匈牙利是中国在欧盟的特洛伊木马,”巴黎的研究机构亚洲中心的中国问题专家高敬文(Jean-Pierre Cabestan)说。他还表示,虽然习近平在访问法国期间并没有取得多大成就,但他通过巩固中国与塞尔维亚和匈牙利的关系,“帮助了中国(在欧洲)的地位”。塞尔维亚总统武契奇和习近平在贝尔格莱德的仪式上,摄于上周三。In an interview with Magyar Nemzet, a Hungarian news media outlet controlled by Mr. Orban’s governing Fidesz party, Mr. Xi expressed hope that Hungary would “take the lead” in “maintaining the correct direction of E.U.-China relations.”习近平在匈牙利新闻媒体《匈牙利民族报》上发表文章说,希望匈牙利“引领地区合作,坚持中欧关系正确方向”,该报由欧尔班所在的执政党青民盟控制。Noah Barkin, a senior adviser with the Rhodium Group who studies European-Chinese relations, said China would be wrong to hope that Mr. Orban can use Hungary’s council presidency, which lasts only six months, to shift European policy significantly. “The idea that Hungary will be able to do China’s bidding during its presidency is fanciful,” he said.荣鼎集团研究欧中关系的高级顾问诺亚·巴尔金说,中国希望欧尔班能够利用匈牙利的轮值主席国地位来大幅改变欧洲的对华政策是不正确的,轮值主席国的任期只有六个月。“认为匈牙利在担任轮值主席国期间能听从中国的指挥是空想,”他说。But Mr. Orban has a long history of swimming against the tide set by more powerful European countries. He was the only E.U. leader to travel to Beijing in October for a gathering celebrating Mr. Xi’s pet foreign policy initiative, the Belt and Road infrastructure program. He was also the only leader who blocked a statement the European Union had planned to issue in 2021 criticizing China over its crackdown in Hong Kong.但欧尔班长期以来喜欢与更强的欧洲国家反潮流而行。他是去年10月去北京参加“一带一路”基础设施项目庆祝活动的唯一欧盟国家领导人,“一带一路”是习近平钟爱的外交政策倡议。他也是阻止欧盟打算在2021年发声明批评中国镇压香港抗议活动的唯一领导人。China and Hungary are “natural allies” because they share a commitment to pursuing their own national interests no matter what anyone else says, a pro-government Hungarian commentator, Levente Sitkei, told Magyar Nemzet.亲政府的匈牙利评论员列文特·希特凯伊对《匈牙利民族报》说,中国和匈牙利是“天然的盟友”,因为两国都致力于追求自身的国家利益,无论其他人怎么说。“China makes alliances that it thinks useful and will never, in any forum, care about how others think,” Mr. Sitkei said. “Hungary acts in exactly the same way.”“中国与它认为有用的国家结盟,永远不会在任何论坛上关心其他人怎么想,”希特凯伊说。“匈牙利的做法完全相同。”欧尔班和夫人奥妮科·莱沃伊与习近平和夫人彭丽媛在布达佩斯的一家餐厅。Even before Mr. Xi’s trip, China had been making some progress on restoring influence in Europe. Olaf Scholz, the chancellor of Germany, flew to Beijing last month and softened his warnings on trade tensions by emphasizing his country’s commitment to doing business with China.甚至在习近平出访之前,中国已在恢复欧洲影响力方面取得了一些进展。德国总理肖尔茨在上个月访华时,通过强调德国致力于与中国做生意的承诺,软化了他对贸易紧张关系的警告。Some in Beijing seem confident that China will succeed in coaxing European governments away from alignment with Washington.一些中国官员似乎信心满满地认为,中国将成功说服欧洲各国政府不与美国走得太近。“Even if European politicians often put on a big show of shaking their fists at China, in their hearts they well know that Europe cannot do without the contribution from economic cooperation with China,” Wang Wen, a researcher at the Chongyang Institute for Financial Studies at Renmin University in Beijing, told Guancha, a Chinese news website, this week. “More and more Europeans are waking up to the fact that after losing Russia, they cannot now lose China.”“尽管时常有欧洲政客公开高调地挥舞着自己对中国的拳头,但他们内心很清楚,欧洲离不开与中国经济合作的贡献,”中国人民大学重阳金融研究院执行院长王文上周在《观察者》网站发文写道。“越来越(多)欧洲人变得清醒,失去了俄罗斯之后,不能再失去中国。”Many in Europe, however, remain deeply wary of Mr. Xi’s partnership with Mr. Putin — a relationship that will be back in the spotlight when Mr. Putin visits China in the coming weeks. A rash of recent arrests in Britain and Germany of people accused of spying for China has also raised anxieties.然而,许多欧洲人仍对习近平与普京的伙伴关系保持高度警惕,这一关系将在普京未来几周访问中国时再次成为关注的焦点。英国和德国最近逮捕了好几名被指控为中国从事间谍活动的人士,这也引发了人们的焦虑。And even on trade, which Mr. Xi highlighted as the lifeblood of cooperation, tensions are rising over a surge of Chinese-made electric vehicles and other products.习近平把贸易强调为合作的命脉,但由于中国制造的电动汽车和其他产品激增,贸易紧张关系也已加剧。习近平的车队上周五在布达佩斯。一名评论员说,中国和匈牙利是“天然的盟友”,因为两国都致力于追求自身的国家利益,无论其他人怎么说。In September, the European Commission announced an investigation into Chinese state subsidies for electric vehicle makers. The European Union also opened inquiries last month into Chinese wind turbine and solar panel manufacturers, alleging that they benefited from unfair subsidies.去年9月,欧盟委员会宣布对电动汽车制造商从中国政府得到的补贴展开调查。 欧盟上个月还开启了对中国风力涡轮机和太阳能电池板制造商的调查,指控它们从不公平补贴中受益。“Xi’s trip will not have reassured anyone who was hoping for signs that China is taking Europe’s concerns seriously,” Mr. Barkin said.“对那些希望看到有迹象表明,中国正在认真对待欧洲的担忧的人来说,习近平此行不会打消任何疑虑,”巴尔金说。The final day of Mr. Xi’s stay in Hungary was strikingly uneventful for a leader whose usually full agenda has earned him the nickname chairman of everything. Mr. Orban gave Mr. Xi and his wife, Peng Liyuan, a tour of Budapest, Xinhua, the official Chinese news agency, reported.习近平匈牙利之行的最后一天引人注目地平淡,这对一名日程通常安排得很满、有着“万能主席”绰号的领导人来说异乎寻常。据中国官方通讯社新华社报道,欧尔班带着习近平和夫人彭丽媛参观了布达佩斯。“The two leaders sat gazing out the window at clouds rolling by,” the Xinhua report said. “They spoke at ease about their experiences growing up and thoughts on governance, and they reached many points of consensus.”“两国领导人临窗而坐,看窗外云卷云舒,”新华社的报道写道。他们“畅谈各自成长经历和治国理政感想,达成很多共识”。习近平和夫人上周五离开布达佩斯。甚至在他们出访之前,中国已在恢复欧洲影响力方面取得了一些进展。Barnabas Heincz自布达佩斯、David Pierson自香港对本文有报道贡献。Andrew Higgins是《纽约时报》东欧和中欧分社社长,常驻华沙。他报道的区域从波罗的海三国(爱沙尼亚、拉脱维亚和立陶宛)一直延伸到科索沃、塞尔维亚和前南斯拉夫的其他地区。点击查看更多关于他的信息。储百亮(Chris Buckley)是《纽约时报》首席中国记者,在台北报道中国和台湾问题,重点关注政治、社会变革以及安全和军事问题。点击查看更多关于他的信息。翻译:纽约时报中文网点击查看本文英文版。

Source: 习近平结束访欧:收获友情,但恐难彻底打消欧洲对华疑虑



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